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Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole. The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latter , as well as 3D graphics and video.
Its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins ; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers.
However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite branding , each new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” plus a number; e. With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC ” , Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model. As of November , Adobe has also released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad , and while initially limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad.
Photoshop was developed in by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll , who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe.
Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1. The list price of Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years.
Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or.
GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes.
These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications.
Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.
The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content.
Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop. Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.
The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.
Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations.
The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document. By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.
The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.
The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas.
The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line.
The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings.
Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc.
To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand.
The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made.
The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool.
Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point. It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed.
The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over.
By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values.
Adobe After Effects – Wikipedia
Retrieved December 26, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved November 15, Creative Mac. Archived from the original on November 5, Digital Arts. Adobe Blog. Retrieved May 17, Retrieved April 15, September April June May Archived from the original on March 5, October December Retrieved January 12, January 27, January 19, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved April 19, June 13, Retrieved November 6, October 18, January 23, Retrieved January 23, April 3, Retrieved April 3, Retrieved October 26, October 15, December 11, Retrieved December 13, January 24, Retrieved February 19, May 19, Retrieved May 28, October 20, March 10, Retrieved March 10, October 16, Retrieved October 27, Retrieved Retrieved March 19, Adobe Creative Suite and Creative Cloud.
Adobe Inc. Category Commons. Digital compositing software. Motion graphics and animation software. Pivot Animator. Adobe Director Avid Elastic Reality. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use mdy dates from October Namespaces Article Talk.
Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Company of Science and Art. January ; 29 years ago Windows 10 x64 only v and later, macOS Visual effects , Motion graphics , Compositing , Computer animation. Trialware , software as a service SaaS. Time Layout window, image sequence support, motion blur, multi-machine rendering, frame blending, proxies.
Power Macintosh version PPC . File formats, multiprocessing; last Mac x0 version. Flowchart view, watch folder, 3D channel effects, collect files command, auto deinterlacing, sequence layers, save favorite effects. January 7, . Advanced 3D renderer, multiple 3D views, import camera data, colored shadows, projection layers, effects palette, post render actions, advanced lightning, adjustment layer lights, smart mask, looping via expressions, RealMedia output, expression controllers, Zaxwerks 3D Invigorator Classic bundled; first OS X version.
Shape layers, puppet tool, brainstorm, clip notes, Photoshop vanishing point import, adaptive motion blur, per character 3D text animation, real-time audio playback, simultaneous multi-frame rendering, SWF vector import, bit linear blending, full color management; first Universal Binary Intel Mac version.
October 6, . Fixes “locking existing frames” message delay at start of RAM preview, decreased performance due to Wacom driver conflict, aerender not shutting down background processes, and miscellaneous crashes especially on Mac OS X April 30, .
September 3, . April 8, . Fixes an “Unexpected data type” error opening project with missing effects, a crash with Directional Blur and other effects on computers with 16 or more logical processors, and a crash opening a composition created by Automatic Duck Pro Import AE.
April 11, . June 30, . Fixes for delay when typing in a text layer if mouse pointer was above the Composition panel, and inability to use an upgrade serial number. April 23, . Live PSD 3D layer import was removed. May 25, . October 12, . June 17, . October 31, . OS December 13, . June 18, . Let us know. Thanks, Nishu. Community Beginner , Oct 27, Oct 27, Hi Nishu, thank you! Adobe Employee , Nov 01, Nov 01, Jump to latest reply.
In Response To Mossy Hope this helps someone as well! Does it show any crash report? Does it crash at launch? If so, what’s the last loading module on the splash screen? Let us know, we’re here to help. Hi Nishu, I am currently using version But that has been replaced after I deleted the preference settings, It does generate a crash report.
The last module loading is “Initializing Media Core” Thanks. Hi Nishu, I was able to solve this problem. It seems to have been caused by a plugin. Thank you. Hi Mossy79, i have a same problem. In Response To Oleg5E It was AE Juice plug-in that was causing the problems for me. Thanks Nishu Im running the Crash at lunch. In Response To Malanche. Same problem in French. Correct answer by Oleg5E Bad Mosquito Films.
Removing AEJuice worked for me too. Sorry how can i remove de plug in? Im having the same problem starting AE. Sihab Himu. Hi Nishu, Thank you for your answer!
Very appreciated and very helpful!
Handy tools for Adobe After Effects & Premiere Pro – Mister Horse.Adobe After Effects CC Free Download – My Software Free
Workaround: Open project using File > Open Project after starting After Effects, or double-click project file once After. When you launch After Effects, you could receive the following error: “After Effects warning: The following plugins failed to load. Please.
Adobe after effects cc 2018 not opening free
Adobe Creative Suite CS is a discontinued software suite of graphic design , video editing , and web development applications developed by Adobe Systems. On May 6, , Adobe announced that CS6 would be the last version of the Creative Suite,    and that future versions of their creative software would only be available via their Adobe Creative Cloud subscription model. Adobe also announced that it would continue to support CS6 and would provide bug fixes and security updates through the next major upgrades of both Mac and Windows operating systems as of The following table shows the different details of the core applications in the various Adobe Creative Suite editions.
Each edition may come with all these apps included or only a subset. Adobe Stock launched in Adobe sold Creative Suite applications in several different combinations called “editions”, these included:. Adobe Prelude and Adobe Encore are not released as standalone products. Adobe Encore is available as part of Adobe Premiere Pro. In March , it was reported that Adobe would no longer sell boxed copies of the Creative Suite software, instead offering digital downloads and monthly subscriptions.
Creative Suite helped InDesign become the dominant publishing software, replacing QuarkXPress , because customers who purchased the suite for Photoshop and Illustrator received InDesign at no additional cost. Adobe shut down the “activation” servers for CS2 in December , making it impossible for licensed users to reinstall the software if needed. In response to complaints, Adobe then made available for download a version of CS2 that did not require online activation, and published a serial number to activate it offline.
Adobe Creative Suite Production Studio previously Adobe Video Collection was a suite of programs for acquiring, editing, and distributing digital video and audio that was released during the same timeframe as Adobe Creative Suite 2.
The suite was available in standard and premium editions. Macromedia Studio was a suite of programs designed for web content creation designed and distributed by Macromedia. After Adobe ‘s acquisition of Macromedia, Macromedia Studio 8 was replaced, modified, and integrated into two editions of the Adobe Creative Suite family of software from version 2.
Some Macromedia applications were absorbed into existing Adobe products, e. FreeHand has been replaced with Adobe Illustrator. Director and ColdFusion are not part of Adobe Creative Suite and will only be available as standalone products. The final version of Macromedia Studio released include:.
Adobe Creative Suite 3 CS3 was announced on March 27, ; it introduced universal binaries for all major programs for the Apple Macintosh ,  as well as including all of the core applications from Macromedia Studio and Production Studio.
Some Creative Suite programs also began using the Presto layout engine used in the Opera web browser. Adobe began selling CS3 applications in six different combinations called “editions. The latest released CS3 version was version 3. CS3 included several programs, including Dreamweaver , Flash Professional , and Fireworks that were developed by Macromedia , a former rival acquired by Adobe in Adobe dropped the following programs that were previously included in CS2 from the CS3 software bundles: .
Adobe had announced that it would continue to develop Audition as a standalone product, while GoLive had been discontinued. Adobe GoLive 9 was released as a standalone product on June 10, Adobe Audition 3 was announced as a standalone product on September 6, Adobe had discontinued ImageReady and had replaced it with Fireworks, with some of ImageReady’s features integrated into Photoshop.
Audition became part of the Creative Suite again in CS5. Adobe CS4 was also developed to perform better under bit and multi-core processors. Two programs were dropped from the CS4 line-up: Adobe Ultra , a vector keying application which utilizes image analysis technology to produce high quality chroma key effects in less than ideal lighting environments and provides keying of a subject into a virtual 3D environment through virtual set technology, and Adobe Stock Photos.
Below is a matrix of the applications that were bundled in each of the software suites for CS Following the release of CS5 in April , Adobe changed its release strategy to an every other year release of major number installments. The update helped developers optimize websites for a variety of tablets, smart phones, and other devices.
At the same time, Adobe announced a subscription-based pay service as an alternative to full purchase. Not all products were upgraded to CS5. Below is a matrix of the applications that were bundled in each of the software suites for CS5. On May 5, , during the opening keynote of its Adobe MAX conference, Adobe announced that it was retiring the “Creative Suite” branding in favor of “Creative Cloud”, and making all future feature updates to its software now appended with “CC” instead of “CS”, e.
Photoshop CC available via the Creative Cloud subscription service rather than through the purchasing of perpetual licenses. Customers must pay a subscription fee and if they stop paying, they will lose access to the proprietary file formats ,   which are not backward-compatible with the Creative Suite   Adobe admitted that this is a valid concern .
Individual subscribers must have an Internet connection  to download the software and to use the 2 GB of provided storage space or the additionally purchased 20 GB  , and must validate the license monthly. Adobe’s decision to make the subscription service the only sales route for its creative software was met with strong criticism   see Creative Cloud controversy.
In addition to many of the products formerly part of the Creative Suite one product, Fireworks, was announced as having reached the end of its development cycle ,  Creative Cloud also offers subscription-exclusive products such as Adobe Muse  and the Adobe Edge family,  Web-based file and website hosting, Typekit fonts, and access to the Behance social media platform. New versions with major feature updates have been released regularly, with a refresh of the file formats occurring in October Adobe also announced that it would continue to offer bug fixes for the CS6 products so that they will continue to run on the next versions of Microsoft Windows and Apple OS X.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Discontinued software suite. Main article: Adobe Creative Cloud. Archived from the original on Retrieved Ars Technica. Digital Photography Review. As of January 9, Creative Suite is no longer available for purchase. Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on May 9, Archived from the original on April 1, Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 10 January Adobe Creative Suite 2.
Archived from the original on January 8, Archived from the original on January 10, Mobile Magazine. Archived from the original PDF on Opera Software ASA. Archived from the original on March 23, Archived from the original PDF on October 30, Archived PDF from the original on May 14, Beta news. Photoshop CS4. Archived from the original on February 18, PC World. John Nack on Adobe. Conversations Web log. Investor relations. Labs download. The next Web. Life Hacker.
Creative Bloq. Mac life. Tech crunch. Adobe Creative Suite and Creative Cloud. Adobe Inc. Category Commons. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. September 29, ; 18 years ago Microsoft Windows , OS X. IA limited , PowerPC limited , x Adobe Creative Cloud.
Digital media creation and editing. Replaced by Creative Cloud desktop app.